president David Granger has said that, despite their sometimes limited resources, small states can influence international relations.According to the President, small states usually lack the economic, geographic and strategic powers to impose on other states their will in what he described as the contentious and confrontational amphitheater of international relations, and so must pursue their national interests through the practise of diplomacy in the international system.DEFENCE DIPLOMACYPresident David Granger addressing the opening ceremony of the 17th Heads of Mission Conference on Monday“Small states, notwithstanding (their) limitations, can seek to influence international relations in order to achieve (their) foreign policy objectives. Guyana’s involvement in the United Nations’ (UN) Mission in Haiti, which assisted in the restoration of democratic government in Haiti, and its generous assistance to Grenada in the aftermath of Hurricane Ivan in 2004 are examples of the country’s defense diplomacy”, the President posited.He also said that the work of diplomats is impelled by the imperatives of their country’s national interests.“The images on Carifesta Avenue, Georgetown tell the tale of where out interests lie. The flying Coat of Arms of each Caribbean Community member state displayed there reminds that everyone knows that he/she is a citizen of a country, and that country is a constituent of the Caribbean Community”, the President declared.He noted that the erection of the Caricom Secretariat, the embellishment of CARIFESTA Avenue with the flags and insignias of other states, the observance of Caricom Day as a national holiday in Guyana, and the construction of the Cubana Monument are all “expressive of the National interest — to illustrate the state’s world view at the level of citizens, country and community”.“…the duty of the diplomats gathered here today (is) to care for our citizens, country and community. The recognition of the importance of citizenship is vital to (the) national interest, since a country is made up of citizens — persons recognised under the law as legal members of sovereign states, (who) are entitled to the protection of the state,” he said. “The right of every citizen is important wherever they are.”The President said the protection of Guyana’s sovereignty is an essential element of Guyana’s diplomacy. He said Guyana lacks the economic strength to sanction other states, and the military capability to extend its power beyond its borders; but as the only English-speaking country in South America, Guyana can influence international relations both in the north and south by exploiting strategic advantages.Foreign Affairs Minister Carl Greenidge, in his speech, said foreign policy is an extension of national policy, which must have as its primary aim the overall development of the nation.“This being the case, our representatives must understand their roles and responsibilities,” he posited.The foregoing remarks were made by President Granger and Minister Carl Greenidge at the opening ceremony of the 17th Heads of Mission Conference hosted by the Foreign Affairs Ministry at the Pegasus Hotel in Georgetown. The forum, which will end on April 8, is being held under the theme “Advancing Guyana’s Diplomacy in the 21st Century.”It will see discussions on a wide range of political and economic issues, including the challenges and opportunities presented by the current complex but evolving international situation; the preservation of the nation’s territorial integrity and sovereignty; economic diplomacy; the continuing role of the diaspora in national development; the role of foreign investment in the nation’s development; topical and urgent questions relating to the consequences of climate change; the effect of technology on modern diplomacy; and the multi-polar nature of modern international economic relations, among other issues.In addition, Guyana’s foreign relations will be examined with a view to strengthening and expanding traditional relationships, and determining whether diplomatic representation in some areas ought to be decreased or expanded. Guyana’s membership of multilateral and regional institutions such as Caricom, MERCOSUR, UNASUR and CELAC will also be given extensive consideration.
A side-view schematic of the single-walled carbon-nanotube field-effect transistor, showing the two halfnium dioxide layers (HfO2). The nanotube is represented by the honeycomb pattern in the center of the figure. VGS is the voltage across the transistor’s gate and source. (PhysOrg.com) — Researchers in Finland have created a form of carbon-nanotube based information storage that is comparable in speed to a type of memory commonly used in memory cards and USB “jump” drives. Researchers combine logic, memory to build a ‘high-rise’ chip This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Citation: Carbon-Nanotube Memory that Really Competes (2009, January 26) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2009-01-carbon-nanotube-memory.html The group’s memory scheme has a write-erase time of 100 nanoseconds, which is about 100,000 times faster than previously reported carbon-nanotube memory, and retains this ability over more than 10,000 write-erase cycles. The work is reported in the January 16, 2009, online edition of Nano Letters.”In terms of speed and endurance, our memory structure is as good as the commercially available Flash memory technologies,” said Helsinki University of Technology physicist Päivi Törmä, the paper’s corresponding author, to PhysOrg.com.The memory scheme stores information using single-walled carbon-nanotube transistors, specifically field-effect transistors, which are among the fastest carbon-nanotube electrical components. Each transistor consists of four key parts, the gate, source, drain, and substrate.As a substrate, Törmä and her colleagues chose a silicon wafer. In collaboration with Finnish technology-equipment company Beneq Oy, they applied a 20-nanometer-thick layer of hafnium oxide using atomic layer deposition, a technique used to deposit materials in very thin layers. The hafnium oxide separates the substrate, which was also used as the gate in this case, from the rest of the structure. Choosing hafnium dioxide as the gate “dielectric” material—an insulator placed between two conductors to separate them—appears to be the key to the device’s fast operation, as it can trap and release charge very quickly and efficiently.On top of the hafnium-oxide layer, the group deposited a few drops of a carbon-nanotube solution, produced using commercially available nanotubes with diameters between 1.2 and 1.5 nanometers and lengths of 100 to 360 nanometers. Using an atomic force microscope, they identified nanotubes with the proper alignment; only those nanotubes became transistors. They then created source and drain electrodes for each nanotube using the metal palladium, with the nanotube forming the transistor’s conductive channel. Finally, the researchers deposited another 20-nanometer layer of hafnium oxide on top of the nanotube transistor, to “passivate” the surface, preventing unwanted reactions.”The fast memory operation we have demonstrated could potentially also be realized using other carbon materials, such as carbon-nanotube bundles or graphene,” said Törmä.Each transistor stores information based on whether current is running through it. When the voltage applied across the transistor reaches a certain threshold, current flows, which can represent one bit of information, either a “0” or a “1” (bit is short for binary digit). For example, when the transistor is conducting it may represent a “1,” and when not conducting, a “0.”Each transistor can store information for about 150,000 seconds, or about 42 hours. This is quite short, although Törmä and her group think they can improve it by adding an oxide layer between the gate and the nanotube.Citation: Nano Lett., Article ASAP DOI: 10.1021/nl8029916Copyright 2008 PhysOrg.com. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com. Explore further