Living Fossils Rise from the Dead

first_imgThe oxymoron “living fossil” is suggestive.  Seeing a plant or animal come to life, when it was only known from fossils, might seem miraculous.  Perhaps, though, the phrase was invented to rescue Darwinian theory from the vast ages it requires.  Is it credible to believe the time gaps?  Here are two recent stories about creatures long thought dead, only to be found doing “Quite well, thank you.” Tick talk.  Researchers in South Africa were sure that the living fossil they found represented an “evolutionary missing link” that might help explain relationships between several lineages of arthropods that “evolved” the blood feeding trait independently.  This led to queer sentences like this in their PLoS One paper.1  “Thus, even though blood-feeding evolved in the ancestral tick lineage, the adaptation to the mammalian and avian blood-feeding interfaces occurred independently in the soft and hard tick families.”  It also seems weird for the ancestor of diverse lineages of ticks to be doing just fine in a living form, with no evolutionary change for many millions of years: In conclusion, phylogenetic analysis indicates that N. namaqua groups basal to both tick families and is the closest extant lineage to the last common ancestral tick lineage. Its argasid-like feeding behaviour and biology provides compelling evidence for the evolution of a blood-feeding lifestyle within the last common ancestral tick lineage. The semi-arid nature of the Northern Cape as found in Namaqualand and the Karoo has been maintained since Permian times. The partiality of N. namaqua for xeric environments and small reptiles could therefore be an indication of a lifestyle maintained for more than 250 million years. This would truly make this tick species a living fossil. Real eel:  Another living fossil announced recently is a “primitive” looking eel found swimming in a cave on Palau that PhysOrg said is squirming into the record books.  Why?  “A new species of eel found in the gloom of an undersea cave is a ‘living fossil’ astonishingly similar to the first eels that swam some 200 million years ago, biologists reported on Wednesday.”  The BBC News included a short video clip of the slick-looking swimmer.  Going on about how “primitive” it looked (at first glance, it looks rather stylish), the article quoted the scientists giving their evaluation:  “In some features it is more primitive than recent eels, and in others, even more primitive than the oldest known fossil eels, suggesting that it represents a ‘living fossil’ without a known fossil record.”  This begs the question of why it survives intact to this day, unevolved.  Even worse, the article put forth an apparent contradiction:  “Their results suggest this new family has been evolving independently for the last 200m years, placing their origins in the early Mesozoic era, when dinosaurs were beginning their domination of the planet.”  If it has been evolving for 200 million years, why does it look primitive?  Why is it a living fossil? “The term “living fossil” was coined by Charles Darwin in his book On the Origin of Species,” the article on PhysOrg informed its readers.  “It is used to describe species that have survived for millions of years, exploiting niches that are so stable that there is little pressure on them to evolve.”  Of course, to evolve is an active verb infinitive that cannot be applied to dumb eels, as if they had any choice in the matter, environmental pressure or not.  And if stable niches reduce the pressure on evolution, it would be surprising that anything in the ocean, one of the first stable habitats on earth, ever evolved as Darwinians claim they did. 1. Mans, de Klerk, Pienaar, and Latif, “Nuttalliella namaqua: A Living Fossil and Closest Relative to the Ancestral Tick Lineage: Implications for the Evolution of Blood-Feeding in Ticks,” Public Library of Science One, 6(8): e23675. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0023675. Stop letting Darwinists get away with these word games.  If their theory explains extreme diversification alongside extreme stasis, then it is explaining opposite things with equal ease.  Therefore, “living fossil” explains nothing.  As an oxymoron, it is all moron and no oxy. The evidence only makes sense without the millions of years.  The living creatures resemble the fossil creatures because they are not separated by vast swaths of mythical time, but came from a created world with much more diversity than our impoverished remnant.  Close the time gap.  (This gives “Darwin-of-the-gaps” a new twist.)(Visited 44 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more


A Guide to Structuring Your Scripts and Screenplays

first_imgWhen you’re structuring your screenplay, there are a number of options to consider if you want the strongest script possible.The backbone of every good film or video project is a solid script. And the backbone of every solid script is an even more solid structure. Structure is what makes the screenplay-writing-world go round, so to speak. It’s the deciding factor in why many film or video projects succeed or fail.To properly structure your scripts and screenplays, you must first understand why you should bother. Once you have a good understanding of working with your structure, you can improvise and change it as you’d like — but usually only within the confines of the structure rules.Let’s dive into the hows and whys when structuring your scripts and screenplays — as well as different structural alternatives — to give your films and projects the sturdiest backbone possible.Break Down Your IdeaAn important step in preparing a script is hashing out the intricacies of the main idea for your project. (Image by Nitikorn Poonsiri.)A project begins with a simple idea. Let’s make a cool short film based on this. Or, I’ve always wanted to tell this story — how do I take it from paper to film? In the beginning, it’s perfectly fine to free associate, without the confines of structure — or even knowing exactly what your idea will become.However, once you form your idea into an actual film project, you’ll need to outline it and eventually write your script. Here’s a great article on how (and why) to break your idea and screenplay down.It’s also helpful (early on) to start working with a script supervisor (here’s more info on what that role entails and why you might need one).The Three-Act StructureThe Hero’s Journey is a great guide when mapping out your script. (Image via Wikipedia.)If you take any intro-to-screenwriting class (or even just search around online), you’ll probably find a lot of information about the “Three-Act Structure.” The roots of the three-act structure go deep into the history not only of film but also novels, plays, comic books, and more. And, you can find the three-act structure in films by everyone from Hitchcock to Spielberg.Based on the work of the great Joseph Campbell and his efforts to unlock the monomyth (or Hero’s Journey), which we’re all accustomed to reading, watching, and writing about, the three-act structure is basically the following:Act 1: SetupAct II: ConfrontationAct III: ResolutionHowever, there’s a lot of nuance behind those three acts. And while you can always read up a great deal more on the three-act structure, it’s important to know that once you understand it, you can definitely start bending — if not breaking — its rules. (Here’s an awesome article on how to do just that.)Alternative Structures to ConsiderWhile the three-act structure is historically popular, researching other structural alternatives is something to consider. (Image by Mark Poprocki.)Outside of the three-act structure, there are other alternative structures you can consider. (Although, it’s worth noting that the vast majority of the films and story narratives you encounter will be based on the three-act — many screenwriting books, seminars, and competitions often focus on the three-act.)Here are some of the most well-known alternatives:22 Steps: created by screenwriter John Truby, the 22 Steps are a more literal “step-by-step” structure to follow for blockbuster and adventure films.Four-Act: Often associated with television writing, the four-act is a modified version of the three-act structure that either divides the middle (2nd) act into two parts, or alternatively, adds a fourth act to the end.Progressive Complications: While compatible as a part of the three- (or four-) act structure, progressive complications involves structuring your story to make sure the stakes are constantly rising.And there are plenty of other alternative structures out there, some with names and methodologies, and others that are completely undefined and up to you. In many ways, research is best, but it’s important to just start writing, make your own mistakes, get feedback, and write again.Cover image by Saikorn.For more script- and screenwriting advice and resources, check out some of these articles:Free Script Writing Software Options for the Low-Budget FilmmakerHow to Overcome the 5 Biggest Obstacles to Writing Your ScreenplayInterview: Christina Kallas on Writing and Directing Multi-Protagonist Screenplays5 Important Tools Every Screenwriter Should HaveTips for Rewriting Your Screenplay Without Starting Completely Overlast_img read more


Amateur boxing president steps aside during IOC inquiry

first_imgFILE – In this Saturday, Nov. 3, 2018 file photo, president of the amateur boxing federation Gafur Rakhimov speaks to the media upon becoming the head of AIBA in Moscow, Russia. The president of the international boxing association says he is stepping aside to let an interim leader take charge while the sport is under investigation by the International Olympic Committee. Rakhimov issued a statement Friday March 22, 2019 in which he does not commit to resigning as AIBA president. Nor does he call for new elections. (AP Photo/Alexander Zemlianichenko, file)LAUSANNE, Switzerland — With Olympic boxing under investigation by the IOC, the president of the sport’s governing body said on Friday he was stepping aside to let an interim leader take charge.Gafur Rakhimov sai d he was not resigning as AIBA president, however, and did not call for new elections.ADVERTISEMENT PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games PLAY LIST 02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games01:44Philippines marks anniversary of massacre with calls for justice01:19Fire erupts in Barangay Tatalon in Quezon City01:07Trump talks impeachment while meeting NCAA athletes02:49World-class track facilities installed at NCC for SEA Games02:11Trump awards medals to Jon Voight, Alison Krauss Google Philippines names new country director Rakhimov’s status on a U.S. Treasury Department sanctions list as an alleged heroin trafficker is part of an inquiry by an International Olympic Committee-appointed panel.The panel will update the IOC executive board next week in Lausanne, Switzerland. AIBA could be derecognized by IOC members in June.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSPrivate companies step in to help SEA Games hostingSPORTSPalace wants Cayetano’s PHISGOC Foundation probed over corruption chargesSPORTSSingapore latest to raise issue on SEA Games food, logisticsThe IOC halted planning for the 2020 Tokyo Olympic boxing tournaments and blocked AIBA officials from contacting organizers in Japan.“The allegations against me were fabricated and based on politically motivated lies,” Rakhimov said. “I trust that the truth will prevail. Nevertheless, I have always said that I would never put myself above boxing, and as president, I have a duty to do everything in my power to serve our sport and our athletes.” Colombia protesters vow new strike after talks hit snag Wintry storm delivers US travel woes before Thanksgiving Under AIBA statutes, an interim president is picked from among the five vice-presidents, who include several Rakhimov supporters. The executive committee is due to meet by telephone this weekend. The interim leader can serve only a maximum 365 days before fresh elections, however, meaning that arrangement can’t last through to the Tokyo Olympics.When Rakhimov was elected last year, his supporters pushed for a plan to allow the president to step aside while still retaining key influence and being able to return at any time, but that was defeated.It’s not clear if Rakhimov’s departure would be enough to calm the IOC, which has also criticized AIBA over how fights are judged, anti-doping measures, and its debts.The IOC could try to host an Olympic boxing tournament without AIBA, and some national boxing officials have tried to form a group which could help the IOC stage the event.ADVERTISEMENT Bloomberg: US would benefit from more, not fewer, immigrants Serena Williams, Naomi Osaka win opening matches in Miami Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Nextcenter_img Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. MOST READ Private companies step in to help SEA Games hosting Miguel Romero Polo: Bamboo technology like no other SEA Games hosting troubles anger Duterte Trump tells impeachment jokes at annual turkey pardon event LATEST STORIES View commentslast_img read more