…and how tomorrow’s astronauts, dentists and archaeologists are using them today! It’s crazy to think about: Almost 50 million metric tonnes of e-waste is produced each year, according to the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) website!But this isn’t the sort of mind-bending statistic that will get my kids’ attention. So let me paint a kid-friendly picture: 50 million metric tonnes of e-waste is equivalent to 125,000 jumbo jets—more than 82 times the number of these planes ever built!With that, I might get their interest—and we can start a conversation about why managing all the world’s e-waste is essential for a better future and how we can do our part by recycling our old electronics.The truth is, kids are often better at recycling than adults—and they are growing up in a world where recycling is becoming easier in some ways. So, I love that the elementary school students in Amsterdam—featured in the video posted below—are so excited and clear in their responses to our question, What do you think should happen to old computers? To hear their great responses—including how they will use computers when they grow up—watch the video below.These kids know that used stuff—including technology—is not always garbage. They’re experiencing this fact first-hand as part of the 10,000-plus students in the City of Amsterdam school district learning coding and problem-solving skills on donated, refurbished computer systems from Dutch Bank, ABN AMRO.When ABN AMRO upgrades its technology, its used computers retire from financial analysis and begin a second life in underprivileged Amsterdam schools. This custom donation program, offered through Dell’s Asset Resale & Recycling (ARR) services, enables the schools to offer technology programs they could not otherwise afford —and supports ABN AMRO’s corporate responsibility goal of helping youth discover and develop their interests and talents.Dell’s ARR services has provided ABN AMRO with responsible, secure commercial recycling solutions throughout the Netherlands since 2010. In FY17, the company wanted to expand its solutions to include IT donation—a custom service Dell offers to all business customers worldwide.In FY17, Dell’s ARR program helped ABN AMRO donate more than 1,200 systems to over 80 primary schools throughout Amsterdam to foster computer literary and coding curriculum in their public education community.The recycling journey begins with the collection and tagging of ABN AMRO’s used equipment and then securely overwriting all data. Select refurbished computers are then donated to the City of Amsterdam school district, pre-loaded with all necessary educational software. The remaining systems that are not selected for donation are resold by Dell, and the proceeds fund the donation program (so it’s a self-funding program with no additional cost to ABN AMRO). Dell’s ARR handles all logistics of donating and delivering the computers to the schools.When the donated systems reach their end of life at the schools, Dell collects the used IT products and responsibly recycles them. Dell provides ABN AMRO with fully itemized reporting of each system’s journey from collection to recycling. This reporting, which we compile for all ARR customers, provides critical metrics for sustainability-minded companies like ABN AMRO.Dell’s ARR services understands that one size never fits all. Dell can provide flexible services including customized donation services, like the program Dell designed for ABN AMRO.“To make sure there are enough resources to serve the growing middle class, we have to move to a circular economy,” said Richard Kooloos, ABN AMRO’s director of sustainable banking. “And the best way to experience how the circular economy can work is to partner with and learn from companies like Dell who are actually doing it.”With Dell handling all operational aspects of the donation program, ABN AMRO is free to focus on volunteerism. Following the company’s “Partner of the Future” mission — to discover and develop talent in young children through education in sports, arts and entrepreneurship — its employees regularly lend their technology expertise to help students with their programming lessons.Since starting the donation program in 2016, more than 130 ABN AMRO employees have volunteered to teach students computer coding and literacy on the company’s donated, refurbished computers.Last year, the ABN AMRO Foundation partnered with the City of Amsterdam on the Coding for Amsterdam project, which set a world record for the most students (11,386) coding on a single day!Said Kooloos, “This program helps us achieve more social impact from each dollar we invest. And by giving computers a second life, we can help reduce the demand for raw materials.”Want to know how your organization can do the same? Check us out.Dell’s ARR services offers secure, convenient electronic disposition services for businesses in more than 49 countries and territories. Dell manages the full logistics from picking up to responsibly deposing any brand of owned or leased equipment. Once equipment is tested and cleaned, Dell will designate it for resale or recycling—and give you money back for items of value. For used equipment without resale value, Dell will properly dispose/recycle the IT equipment, meeting or exceeding regulatory compliance requirements. And Dell can customize this service for you. Learn more.This story shares one example of how Dell is committed to driving human progress by putting our technology and expertise to work where it can do the most good for people and the planet.We invite you to explore our FY17 Annual Update on our 2020 Legacy of Good Plan at legacyofgood.dell.com.
Wednesday morning’s football practice was more focused and intense compared to the previous day’s practice despite the over 90 degree temperature before 10 a.m. Head coach Steve Sarkisian said he was happy with the team’s energy and focus throughout practice.“The heat has been good for us,” Sarkisian said. “It’s a positive that we have to work through it.”Sarkisian sees practices as a whole as what’s most important for the team. He said when the team plays hard consistently throughout practice, that’s what prepares them for the games.“We have to be hard on one another because that’s going to make us better and help us perform better on Saturdays,” Sarkisian said.Sarkisian spoke about how true freshman inside linebacker Osa Masina has been playing much more confidently over the past two to three weeks and is playing to his strengths. Masina grabbed another interception during the team portion of practice Wednesday.Defensive coordinator Justin Wilcox also praised Masina’s performance after practice. Masina delivered an immediate impact for the Trojans in his debut after returning a fumble recovery 46 yards for a touchdown.Wilcox pointed out that the defense will continue to see a significant amount of substitutions. He’d like to continue to see a lot of balance in the number of snaps his plays see in each game. The team’s fluidity is dependent on themselves, not the opponent.“It’s about getting fresh bodies in the game,” Wilcox said. “Getting the guys who can help us win the game.”Though the defense played well and held Arkansas State to only a touchdown, Wilcox would like to the team fortify its coverage against dual threat quarterbacks.“We had chances to make some negative plays that we did not make,” Wilcox said. “Those things need to improve.”On offense, Sarkisian said he was was glad that the young offensive line was challenged against Arkansas State. He said that being challenged on the first series of the first game will be beneficial for the team later on in the season.“In the grand scheme of things, we’re still a little young,” Sarkisian said. “But I still think we are going to be very good.”Redshirt sophomore safety Chris Hawkins, who had an interception and a fumble recovery last game, thought that the defense’s performance as a unit was a good one with so many different players seeing playing time against Arkansas State.“It’s valuable to mix guys up,” Hawkins said. “It gets a lot of guys experience.”When it comes to Idaho, the team is not treating them any differently from a Pac-12 opponent.“We have to look at them as if they’re the best,” Hawkins said. “So we can do our jobs.”Sophomore wide receiver JuJu Smith-Schuster, likewise, isn’t taking the team’s week two opponent lightly.“Idaho is going to give it their all,” because they’re playing against USC,” Smith-Schuster said.Even though Smith-Schuster is only a sophomore, he’s already aiming to emerge as one of the team’s unsung leaders.“You don’t need a ‘C’ on your chest to be a captain,” he said.In practice, Smith-Schuster has been seen as the type of player who is always communicating with his teammates, on the field and on the sidelines.Against Arkansas State, Smith-Schuster was double-teamed frequently. Instead of becoming frustrated by double coverages, Smith-Schuster decided that he was going to embrace it and uses it as motivation.He is also happy about the advantage that the double-teams give to his teammates because it , in turn, makes it easier on them to get the ball and score.“If I win on double-team, it looks good for NFL scouts,” Smith-Schuster said. “I love it.”The No. 8 Trojans will return to Howard Jones Field for one final practice before taking on Idaho at the Coliseum on Saturday night.
Kallie Badry 100m Individual Medley,14th 50m Butterfly, 19th 50m Backstroke, 12th 50m Breaststroke, 20thKeira Badry 50m Backstroke, 23rd 100m Freestyle, 24thImogen Cowan 100m Individual Medley, 21st 50m Freestyle, 21st 50m Backstroke, 17thElla Chouinard 100IM, 22nd 50m Backstroke, 21st 100m Freestyle, 23rdEvan Chouinard 50m Freestyle, 23rd 50m Breaststroke, 22nd 100m Freestyle, 22ndElissa Centrone 200m Individual Medley, 24th 50m Freestyle, 23rd 100m Breaststroke, 24thOlivia Cowan 200m Individual Medley, 9th 50m Freestyle, 11th 100m Backstroke, 8th 100m Freestyle, 11thCynthia Pfeiffer 200m Individual Medley, 10th 50m Freestyle, 10th 100m Backstroke, bronze medalLachlan Bibby-Fox 100m Individual Medley, bronze medal 50m Butterfly, 6th 50m Backstroke, 6th 50m Breaststroke, silver medalEnna Cowan 50m Butterfly, 24thMorgan Robterson-Weir 50m Butterfly, 22nd 50m Breaststroke, 23rdJoanna Blishen 100m Butterfly, 24th 100m Breaststroke, 24thJaylen Rushton 100m Individual Medley, 2nd 50m Freestyle, bronze medal 50m Butterfly, bronze medal 50m Breaststroke, 4thRELAYS:4x50m Medley Relay Division 3 Girls, 12th (Ella Chouinard, Morgan Robertson-Weir, Imogen Cowan, Enna Cowan)4x50m Medley Relay Division 8 Girls, 8th (Cynthia Pfeiffer, Jaylen Rushton, Olivia Cowan, Joanna Blishen) 4x50m Freestyle Relay Division 3 Girls, 13th (Ella Chouinard, Morgan Robertson-Weir, Imogen Cowan, Enna Cowan)4x50m Freestyle Relay Division 6 Girls, 12th (Olivia Cowan, Elissa Centrone, Joanna Blishen, Jaylen Rushton)4x50m Freestyle Relay Division 8 Girls, 12th (Cynthia Pfeiffer, Elissa Centrone, Kallie Badry, Keira Badry) The Nelson Neptunes took a core group of swimmers to the BC Summer Swim Association Championships this past weekend in Coquitlam.Here is a capsule look at the Neptune Results:INDIVIDUAL RESULTS:
Caymanas Park Results for Jan 30, 2016Track Condition : Dirt : GoodRace 1 1400 M (Purse $560,000) NB4-Y-O & UP RESTRICTED ALLOWANCE III(NW3 O/T)ALEX’S IMPORTS LIMITED PLAQUE* 1. SOUTHERN CRUISE SEllis 54.52. DREAMCOMETRUE RHalledeen 53.5 13/4L3. BALLON D’OR OMullings 51.0 1/2L4. STAN ROY LSteadman3 53.5 3 1/2LWIN: $55.00PLACE: $50.00, $50.00, $50.00Final Time : 1:26.3 Splits : 24.0, 46.4, 1:12.2,Winner : 4yo ch colt – WEEKEND CRUISE -f HONKEYTONKVILLETrainer: ANTHONY NUNES Owner : HYDE VALLEY FARMSBred by KARL SAMUDAQu: $90.00 Ex: $105.00Trifecta: $42.00Race 2 1000 M (R) (Purse $500,000) NB4-Y-O & UP MAIDEN SPECIAL WEIGHTO & S TACK ROOM & SUPPLIES PLAQUE*1. SIR LEYLAND HALL RNelson 55.02. ACROSSMYHEART AndrePowell4 51.0 8L3. PLAY BACK AntThomas4 50.0 9/1 1 1/4L4. CONNOR DDawkins4 51.0 15/1 1 3/4LWIN: $79.00PLACE: $63.00, $116.00, $62.00Final Time : 1:02.0 Splits : 23.2, 47.2Winner : 4yo b colt – FEARLESS VISION – CHIKINEYTrainer : PAUL HYLTON Owner : BALLYDOYLEBred by ORANGE VALLEY ESTATES LTD.Qu: $958.00 Ex: $1,333.00D/E: $92.00Superfecta: $16,320.00Race 3 1500 M (Purse $768,000) NB3YO(NW2)&IMP3YO&UP(MDN)-REST.ALL.IIB3 DEVELOPMENT GROUP PLAQUE*1. NUCLEAR AFFAIR DaneNelson 53.02. ORPHEUS SEllis 53.5 1 1/4L3. STUNNER OWhite 50.0 4 1/4L4. GLYDER NBerger4 46.0 6LWIN: $58.00PLACE: $50.00, $51.00, $53.00Final Time : 1:33.0 Splits : 24.1, 47.0, 1:11.3,Winner : 3yo filly – NUCLEAR WAYNE – COMMANDRA AFFAIRTrainer : GARY SUBRATIE Owner : MICHROSBred by MICHAEL BERNARDQu: $104.00 Ex: $128.00D/E: $119.00Trifecta: $183.00Rolling Triple: $129.00Race 4 1200 M (Purse $500,000) 3-Y-O & UP CLM(180,0)/NB6YO&UP(NW3)MCKAY SECURITY PLAQUE1. EL CLIENTE OEdwards3 54.0 *2/1 151.00 85.002. FABULOUSCONNECTION PParchment 55.0 83/1 1 1/2 576.003. EUSEBIA RHalledeen 55.0 5/2 1 1/4 120.004. SINK THE BISMARCK LSteadman3 54.0 6/1 Sh.HeadWIN: $151.00PLACE: $85.00, $576.00, $120.00Final Time : 1:16.2 Splits : 23.3, 47.3Winner : 6yo b horse – SEEKING THE GLORY – RHYTHMICAL RAINTrainer : ANTHONY SMITH Owner : MERCURIALBred by CARL CHANG & PETER CHUCKQu: $6,763.00 Ex: $14,494.00D/E: $229.00Superfecta: $73,921.00Rolling Triple: $495.00Race 5 1400 M (Purse $530,000) NB4-Y-O & UP RESTRICTED ALLOWANCE V(NW2)LP AZAR PLAQUE*1. TURBO MACHINE CAT RLunan 56.02. SIR BIGGS CBudhai 56.0 1/2L 92.003. SCAR RMitchell 56.0 1 1/2L 93.004. MAN IN BLUE CChow 56.0 2 3/4LWIN: $91.00PLACE: $63.00, $92.00, $93.00Final Time : 1:29.0 Splits : 24.3, 48.1, 1:14.1,Winner : 4yo ch colt – DODGEM – SECRET CATTrainer : ANDERSON,CARL D Owner : CARL D ANDERSONBred by CARL D. ANDERSONQu: $221.00 Ex: $481.00D/E: $279.00Superfecta: $1,573.00Rolling Triple: $387.00MERCURY SPRINTRace 6 1000 M (S) (Purse $768,000) NB3-Y-O MAIDEN SPECIAL WEIGHT-(COLTS & GELDINGS)-DIV.I1. LITTLE BIG HORN OWalker 54.0*2. MEGATRON SEllis 56.0 2 3/4L3. PROUD PRESIDENT DaneNelson 54.0 2 1/4L4. SEEKING THE DAWN RMairs 54.0 1 3/4L5. BULLET RAJ RMitchell 53.0 1/2L6. BOLD SYMPHONY OFoster 56.0 1 3/4LWIN: $170.00PLACE: $71.00, $71.00, $116.00Final Time : 0:58.3 Splits : 22.3, 44.3Winner : 3yo b colt – WAR MARSHALL – LITTLE WASPTrainer : WAYNE DACOSTA Owner : ELIZABETH DACOSTA, WINSTON KONG & RAYMOND ROUSSEAUBred by E. DACOSTA, G. DULAL-WHITEWAY, W. KONG & RAYMOND ROUSSEQu: $143.00 Ex: $551.00D/E: $497.00Trifecta: $315.00Hit-6: $2,947.50Rolling Triple: $911.00Pick-4: $1,468.00Super-6: $1,172.40Race 7 1000 M (S) (Purse $590,000) 3-Y-O & UP CLM($450,0-$400,0)/NB5YO(NW4)SUPREME VENTURES LTD PLAQUE1. UNBREAKABLE AChatrie 54.02. FRANKENSTORM PFrancis 53.0 2L*3. RUNJOHNNY RUN JPatterson4 50.0 Sh.Head4. BRAVE PROSPECT KRobinson 54.0 2 3/4LLate scratch : #5 CONCUR, #10 SUNLIGHT EXPRESSWIN: $142.00PLACE: $74.00, $65.00, $65.00Final Time : 0:58.4 Splits : 22.4, 45.2Winner : 5yo ch colt – TRADITIONAL – ONEMOREFASHIONTrainer : NEIVE GRAHAM Owner : O’SHAUN CONNECTIONBred by HAM STABLES LTD.Qu: $559.00 Ex: $993.00D/E: $647.00Superfecta: $3,136.00Rolling Triple: $1,603.00MERCURY SPRINTRace 8 1000 M (S) (Purse $768,000) NB3-Y-O MAIDEN SPECIAL WEIGHT-(COLTS & GELDINGS)-DIV.II1. DR. BANNER OMullings 56.0*2. NOLAN HILL AChatrie 54.0 1 1/4L3. BUCK CALL JErwin 54.0 4 1/2L4. BIG AL WHenry 54.0 1 1/2L5. COPPERFIELD SMuir 56.0 NeckWIN: $189.00PLACE: $85.00, $64.00, $162.00Final Time : 0:59.1 Splits : 22.4, 45.4, ,Winner : 3yo b colt – BLUE PEPSI LODGE – DEJA VUTrainer : PHILIP FEANNY Owner : 2 PENYUBred by HAM STABLES LTD.Qu: $177.00 Ex: $458.00D/E: $1,238.00Trifecta: $3,536.00Hi-5: $12,383.50Rolling Triple: $6,294.00Race 9 1300 M (Purse $560,000) 3-Y-O & UP CLM($350,0-$300,0)/NB5YO(NW3)BG&LC PLAQUE1. DOC HOLIDAY DaneNelson 55.02. ROCKETEER RLahoe 53.0 3L*3. STORMING PFrancis 52.0 Head4. PERSIAN BELLE AChatrie 54.0 1 1/4LWIN: $197.00PLACE: $65.00, $75.00, $65.00Final Time : 1:21.0 Splits : 23.2, 47.0, 1:13.0,Winner : 6yo b horse – WIZARD OF GOLD – SI MI TRIALTrainer : ROBERT DARBY (SR) Owner : ROBERT A DARBY (SR)Bred by EDISON CHAIQu: $554.00 Ex: $1,421.00D/E: $1,003.00Superfecta: $4,254.00Rolling Triple: $4,441.00Race 10 1400 M (Purse $500,000) 4-Y-O & UP CLM($180,0)-NOT FINISHED 1st-2nd SINCE SEPT. 30B&D TRAWLING COMPANY LIMITED PLAQUE1. ALDEBARAN AGray4 53.0 *2/1 154.00 66.002. NO COINCIDENCE RHalledeen 55.0 2/1 3 1/4 73.003. GO TO HELL CChow 54.0 5/1 2 81.004. SMART BIDDER OMullings 57.0 66/1 1 1/25. SONGS OF FREEDOM RMitchell 54.0 60/1 NoseLate scratch : #16 I’VE BEEN CHOZENWIN: $154.00PLACE: $66.00, $73.00, $81.00Final Time : 1:30.0 Splits : 24.1, 48.1, 1:15.1,Winner : 7yo b horse – CRUCIAL TRIAL – SAM’S FOUNTAINTrainer : DENRICK CHAMBERSOwner : MICHAEL L FRANCISMRBred by KARL SAMUDAQu: $419.00 Ex: $733.00D/E: $918.00 (6-16) $165.00Trifecta: $903.00Hi-5 Carry-over : $53,631.50Rolling Triple: $2,907.00Pick-4 : (9-10-6-11) $12,260.00Super-6 : $27,226.60Pick-9: $199,088.00 (9 OF 9)PlacePot 8: $1,467.00 (8 OF 8)
It’s a potent symbol of unity and progress. It’s the only six-coloured national flag in the world. It’s also one of the youngest, yet whatever shape it takes – and it’s taken more than any other national symbol – it’s instantly recognisable to South Africans everywhere.South Africa’s flag is the only six-coloured national flag in the world. (Image: Priya Pitamber)Brand South Africa reporterThe new South African national flag first flew on 10 May 1994 – the day Nelson Mandela became president, two weeks after the country’s first democratic elections of 27 April 1994 – “not as a symbol of a political party, nor of a government, but as a possession of the people – the one thing that is literally and figuratively above all else, our flag”.The quote comes from the introduction to Flying with Pride: The Story of the South African Flag, a coffee table book derived from the incredible variety of ways in which this unique cloth has become woven into the fabric of South African society.As in the case of the rocket logo used for IT billionaire Mark Shuttleworth’s First African in Space project, the South African flag has become integrated into butterflies, bow ties, company logos, trees, top hats, hot air balloons, umbrellas, underwear … the list goes on. The South African flag has no equal in this respect.Yet the flag was originally commissioned as an interim flag only – and was a last-minute job, barely making it onto the country’s flagpoles in time to herald the new South Africa.See the South African Flag Guide for info on displaying the flag correctly – and on how to draw and colour your own flag.How the flag came to beChoosing a new flag was part of the negotiation process set in motion when Nelson Mandela was released from prison in 1990. When a nationwide public competition was held in 1993, the National Symbols Commission received more than 7 000 designs. Six designs were drawn up and presented to the public and the Negotiating Council – but none elicited enthusiastic support.A number of design studios were contracted to submit further proposals – again without success – and Parliament went into recess at the end of 1993 without a suitable candidate for the new national flag.In February 1994, Cyril Ramaphosa and Roelf Meyer, chief negotiators of the African National Congress and the National Party government of the day respectively, were tasked with resolving the flag issue. A final design was adopted on 15 March 1994 – derived from a design developed by South Africa’s former State Herald, Fred Brownell.The proclamation of the new national flag was only published on 20 April 1994 – seven days before the flag was to be inaugurated on the 27th, sparking a frantic last-minute flurry for flag manufacturers.Writing in the foreword to Flying with Pride, Ramaphosa comments: “It was difficult to imagine, back then in the days of negotiations, that this assortment of shapes and colours we had before us would become such a central part of defining and identifying a new nation.“As South Africans daily work to build a better society, they are surrounded in many forms and countless manifestations by a flag which recognises and celebrates the unity and diversity of the country’s people.“Few would have imagined, almost a decade ago, that this collection of colourful shapes could become such a potent symbol of unity and progress. But then fewer still would have thought that a country torn apart by decades of racial oppression could transform itself into a beacon of democracy and hope.”Would you like to use this article in your publication or on your website? See Using Brand South Africa material.
Looking around the mobile industry, from Apple to Palm to HTC and Motorola – it’s clear that pinch-to-zoom technology has become a standard and popular way for users to interact with their mobile phones. Likewise, Android users can now truly benefit from this capability with the availability of Android 2.1, which powers a new class of devices with larger touchscreens and more interactive features. Unlike past devices, these phones have the processing power to deliver pinch-to-zoom, while still providing a great user experience. Based on these new capabilities and numerous requests from Android users, we decided to provide pinch-to-zoom capabilities with this new over-the-air software update for Nexus One devices. More Updates: Google Navigation, Google Goggles, Fix for 3G ConnectivityIn addition to the new multitouch functionality, this update will also bring significant new features to the Google Maps application. Starred items and search suggestions will now be synchronized with maps.google.com, for example. In addition, Google Navigation – Google’s turn-by-turn GPS app – will now get a night mode that automatically changes the colors on your screen at night to make the screen easier to read.Google will also now ship Google Goggles as a default application on the Nexus One. Google Goggles is a surprisingly useful tool that allows you to take pictures of landmarks to initiate a search, for example, or to scan business cards and automatically populate Google Contacts with this data.Early adopters of the Nexus One often complained about issues with 3G connectivity. According to Google, this new update should improve 3G connectivity on the phone. 8 Best WordPress Hosting Solutions on the Market Tags:#Google#news#web Why Tech Companies Need Simpler Terms of Servic… frederic lardinois When Google launched the Nexus One Android phone a few weeks ago, support for multitouch gestures like pinch-to-zoom was mysteriously missing from the phone’s feature set in the United States. Starting today, however, Google will begin to ship an over-the-air software update to all Nexus One phones in the U.S. that will enable multitouch pinch-and-zoom functionality in the browser, gallery and maps application. Until now, Nexus One owners had to resort to a hack to enable multitouch on their phones.Google plans to roll this update out slowly. All Nexus One owners should receive a notification about the availability of the update for their phone by the end of the week.Why Now?Oddly enough, Nexus One (and Motorola Droid) users outside of the U.S. have always been able to make use of these multitouch features by default. It’s not clear why Google decided to enable multitouch on the Nexus One now, but we have asked Google for a statement and will update this post once we hear from them.Update: We just heard back from a Google spokesperson. Here is Google’s official reasoning behind making this change now: A Web Developer’s New Best Friend is the AI Wai… Related Posts Top Reasons to Go With Managed WordPress Hosting
It isn’t your business what people think of you. Your job is to live your truth, not worry what others think. But, no one should ever question your character or integrity.
A side-view schematic of the single-walled carbon-nanotube field-effect transistor, showing the two halfnium dioxide layers (HfO2). The nanotube is represented by the honeycomb pattern in the center of the figure. VGS is the voltage across the transistor’s gate and source. (PhysOrg.com) — Researchers in Finland have created a form of carbon-nanotube based information storage that is comparable in speed to a type of memory commonly used in memory cards and USB “jump” drives. Researchers combine logic, memory to build a ‘high-rise’ chip This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Citation: Carbon-Nanotube Memory that Really Competes (2009, January 26) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2009-01-carbon-nanotube-memory.html The group’s memory scheme has a write-erase time of 100 nanoseconds, which is about 100,000 times faster than previously reported carbon-nanotube memory, and retains this ability over more than 10,000 write-erase cycles. The work is reported in the January 16, 2009, online edition of Nano Letters.”In terms of speed and endurance, our memory structure is as good as the commercially available Flash memory technologies,” said Helsinki University of Technology physicist Päivi Törmä, the paper’s corresponding author, to PhysOrg.com.The memory scheme stores information using single-walled carbon-nanotube transistors, specifically field-effect transistors, which are among the fastest carbon-nanotube electrical components. Each transistor consists of four key parts, the gate, source, drain, and substrate.As a substrate, Törmä and her colleagues chose a silicon wafer. In collaboration with Finnish technology-equipment company Beneq Oy, they applied a 20-nanometer-thick layer of hafnium oxide using atomic layer deposition, a technique used to deposit materials in very thin layers. The hafnium oxide separates the substrate, which was also used as the gate in this case, from the rest of the structure. Choosing hafnium dioxide as the gate “dielectric” material—an insulator placed between two conductors to separate them—appears to be the key to the device’s fast operation, as it can trap and release charge very quickly and efficiently.On top of the hafnium-oxide layer, the group deposited a few drops of a carbon-nanotube solution, produced using commercially available nanotubes with diameters between 1.2 and 1.5 nanometers and lengths of 100 to 360 nanometers. Using an atomic force microscope, they identified nanotubes with the proper alignment; only those nanotubes became transistors. They then created source and drain electrodes for each nanotube using the metal palladium, with the nanotube forming the transistor’s conductive channel. Finally, the researchers deposited another 20-nanometer layer of hafnium oxide on top of the nanotube transistor, to “passivate” the surface, preventing unwanted reactions.”The fast memory operation we have demonstrated could potentially also be realized using other carbon materials, such as carbon-nanotube bundles or graphene,” said Törmä.Each transistor stores information based on whether current is running through it. When the voltage applied across the transistor reaches a certain threshold, current flows, which can represent one bit of information, either a “0” or a “1” (bit is short for binary digit). For example, when the transistor is conducting it may represent a “1,” and when not conducting, a “0.”Each transistor can store information for about 150,000 seconds, or about 42 hours. This is quite short, although Törmä and her group think they can improve it by adding an oxide layer between the gate and the nanotube.Citation: Nano Lett., Article ASAP DOI: 10.1021/nl8029916Copyright 2008 PhysOrg.com. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com. Explore further